High-Risk Pregnancy: Every Woman Must Consider.

For most women, the process of pregnancy and childbirth is a process passed with joy and joy. But 5-10% of pregnancies include with a high-risk pregnancy. Women with high-risk pregnancies must prepare themselves to pay more attention to their health care.

A high-risk pregnancy is a pregnancy that can cause complications in the mother, baby, or both. There are plenty of risk factors that can increase the likelihood of pregnancy complications or high-risk pregnancies.


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High-risk pregnancy causes.

High-risk pregnancies are most susceptible to mothers who have had problems in previous pregnancies, such as giving birth prematurely. Not that if you have had a premature birth first, a pregnancy that is now automatic will also be premature. It's just that, the risks might come up with different manifestations.

There are several factors that can make a person's pregnancy fall into the category of high-risk pregnancy. The factors that cause high-risk pregnancy are:

1. Mother's age. 

High-risk pregnancy age. One of the most common risk factors for high-risk pregnancies is the age of the mother. Women who will be under the age of 17 or over the age of 35 when giving birth to their babies are at a greater risk of complications compared to late teens and early 30s. The risk of miscarriage and genetic defects increases more after age 40.

2. Lifestyle.

The habit of consuming alcohol or cigarettes during pregnancy will increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, stillbirth, congenital defects at birth, and sudden infant death. These risks also increase in pregnant women who become passive smokers.

3. Mother's disease.

  1. Blood disorders. If you have a blood disorder, such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia, pregnancy can actually worsen your condition. Blood disorders can also increase a baby's risk during pregnancy or after giving birth to experience the same thing with you.
  2. Depression. Untreated depression or some drugs used to treat depression have risks to your baby's health and safety. If you really are taking an antidepressant and just found out you are pregnant, don't stop it suddenly, immediately consult this with your doctor.
  3. High blood pressure. Hypertension that is not handled properly can cause your fetus to grow slowly and increase your risk for preterm delivery. Other complications associated with high blood pressure are preeclampsia and placental abruption, a serious condition in which the placenta separates part of the uterus before the baby is born.
  4. HIV or AIDS. If you have HIV or AIDS, your baby is most likely to be infected before birth, during labor or when you are breastfeeding. However, treatment can reduce this risk.
  5. Lupus. Lupus and other autoimmune diseases can increase the risk of preterm birth, preeclampsia, and very low birth weight babies. Pregnancy can also aggravate this condition.
  6. Obesity. Having excessive body mass index before pregnancy makes you more at risk for gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure during pregnancy. When giving birth, you may only be able to undergo cesarean delivery.
  7. Thyroid disease. Thyroid disorders both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can increase problems with miscarriage, preeclampsia, low birth weight, and premature delivery.
  8. Diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes can increase the risk of birth defects, high blood pressure, giving birth to a premature baby, and babies at risk of overweight (macrosomia). This can also increase the risk of respiratory problems, low glucose levels, and jaundice.

4. Premature labor. 

Premature labor is labor that begins before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Factors that can trigger premature labor are women with high-risk factors, such as infection, short cervix, and a history of previous preterm birth.

5. Twin births.

Twin pregnancies can be interpreted as a pregnant woman carrying more than one baby (twins, triplets, quadruplets, etc.). Twin pregnancy increases the risk of premature labor, gestational diabetes, and high blood pressure in pregnancy.

6. Placenta previa.

Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta covers the cervix. This condition can cause bleeding, especially if a woman has contractions. If the placenta is still covering the cervix at the time of labor, it is likely that the doctor will plan a cesarean section to reduce the risk of bleeding to the mother and baby.

7. Fetal problems.

About 2% to 3% of babies have problems in organ formation. In some infants accompanied by a family history of having a congenital defect, some others do not. The presence of congenital abnormalities is an unexpected thing. TORCH infection (Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes Simplex) in the first trimester of pregnancy is one of the risk factors for congenital defects.

8. Use of alcohol.

Alcohol consumed during pregnancy can cross the placenta and directly into the fetal blood circulation. Women should avoid alcoholic drinks during pregnancy and when trying to get pregnant. During pregnancy, women who drink alcohol have a greater risk factor for miscarriage or stillbirth. In addition, women who drink alcohol during pregnancy have a higher risk of birth defects and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is the technical name for a group of fetal disorders that are associated with drinking alcohol during pregnancy. This causes an abnormal form of the face, short stature and low weight, hyperactivity, intellectual disability, and hearing problems.

9. Preeclampsia. 

This serious condition usually occurs during the second trimester of pregnancy, you will experience high blood pressure. Preeclampsia can affect fetal development and your health. This pregnancy disorder also increases premature birth.

10. Slow fetal development.

Fetal development will usually always go into an important examination every time you visit an obstetrician. In some cases, if the fetus does not develop as it should, you need extra supervision from medical personnel, this increases high-risk pregnancies by giving birth prematurely.

11. Gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes that does not immediately get treatment makes you have the risk of premature delivery, high blood pressure, and preeclampsia. Consult a doctor for further treatment.

12. Already have 4 children or more.

Pregnancy more than 4 times or grande multipara is included in high-risk pregnancies because complications can occur either during pregnancy or childbirth. Some risks of complications that may occur include antepartum bleeding, (bleeding that occurs after the age of 28 weeks), solution placentae (release of part or all of the placenta from the uterus), placenta previa (placental closed birth canal), spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or growth of a poor baby in the womb.

Grande multipara can also result in complications in labor, among others, by increasing the risk of uterine atony (postpartum hemorrhage), uterine rupture (tear of the uterine wall), and malpresentation (the baby is born the wrong position). Bleeding is one of the big risks that must be experienced by women whose pregnancies are four times or more, compared to women who are pregnant less than four times

Is Vegetarian mother has a high risk of pregnancy?

Based on the results of research conducted at Akershus University Hospital in Oslo, Norway, health experts advise mothers who are vegetarians not to do this diet program if they want to plan a pregnancy, during pregnancy, and while breastfeeding. By not being a vegetarian, the health of pregnant women, the fetus in the womb, or babies who are breastfeeding, can be maintained because they continue to get healthy nutrients from meat or fish.

If pregnant women still force themselves to become a vegetarian, then they certainly will not get nutrients from meat, fish, eggs, or the like so that it will increase the birth of babies prematurely. In addition, in the absence of these food ingredients, pregnant women will also lack nutrition like protein, vitamin B12, and various other nutrients which of course will increase the risk of weak content. In addition, the fetus in the womb will also tend to be less energetic and have a weak immune system.

Health experts advise pregnant women to always fulfill their nutritional needs every day by consuming foods such as vegetables, fruits, and protein sources like meat, fish, grains, and so on. In addition, pregnant women should also keep exercising, get enough rest, and avoid alcohol and smoking.

How to prevent a high-risk pregnancy.

The main key to all healthy pregnancies is ensuring yourself healthy before becoming pregnant, applying a healthy lifestyle, and routinely controlling with your doctor during pregnancy. Specifically, here's what you need to do:
  1. Check yourself regularly, especially in the early days of pregnancy. The first weeks are an important period of early baby growth. Pregnant women can have their pregnancy checked to detect and deal with possible abnormalities in the baby. With regular checks, doctors can also provide early treatment if you are at risk or detected having gestational diabetes and preeclampsia.
  2. Take pregnant vitamins. Taking vitamin Folic acid at least 400 micrograms per day before and during the first 3 months of pregnancy can help prevent bodily defects in infants, especially the spinal cord and brain. Some pre-pregnancy vitamins contain 800-1000 micrograms of folic acid which is still relatively safe. But you should avoid consuming more than 1000 micrograms of folic acid.
  3. Keep your body weight normal. Pregnancy is synonymous with weight gain. But the effort should not exceed 11-15 kilograms. Too little weight gain is also included in the high-risk pregnancy category because the risk of premature birth is high. Conversely, excessive weight during pregnancy makes the mother at risk of developing gestational diabetes and high blood pressure. 
  4. Stop habits that endanger the fetus. Smoking, consuming liquor, and consuming too many caffeinated drinks can increase the risk of mental and physical abnormalities in the womb. By avoiding all three, you can minimize the risk of preeclampsia and the risk of giving birth to a baby with a low weight. These conditions are common in women who give birth over the age of 35 years.

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